At the beginning of my career as an academic scientist (in fact, on the very first day!), I happened to discover that the PhD thesis of one of my colleagues was based fully on fabricated data. The experiments described in the thesis could not have been done, and, of course, the results could not have been obtained. I was perturbed, and went straightaway to the Head of the lab to discuss it. The Head was in full agreement with me. Only later did I come to know that the said Head was the de facto research guide of my colleague.
I was naive, but I didn't expect Dilbert to be so.